Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Eau-de-Vie

A generic term for alcoholic beverages obtained from the fermentation and subsequent distillation of various fruits, cereals and aromatic plants.


Expression

Method of essential oil extraction, also known as cold pressing, used for citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, bergamot, tangerine and lime.


Ethyl carbamate

A toxic substance which results from the conversion of cyanide in the stones of fruits during the fermentation process. The risk of contamination is reduced by the removal of the stones or pits before fermentation.


Esters

Chemical substances resultant from the interaction of acids from organic materials with alcohol (etherification), they impart the characteristic aroma of the fruit to the distillate.


Expectorant

Pharmacological substance that acts upon the respiratory system, promoting the release of phlegm or mucous from the respiratory tract.


Eucalyptus

A tall tree native to Australia used for timber, to extract resin, to produce cellulose, charcoal and for the extraction of essential oils. Eucalyptus essential oils have therapeutic value, are antiseptic and may also be used.


Evaporation

Physical phenomenon that occurs when a substance passes from its liquid phase to its gaseous phase when heated.


Ethanol

Is the colourless alcohol soluble in water and other organic compounds present in alcoholic beverages, fuels, perfumes, lotions and antiseptics. Ethanol is the result of enzyme action during fermentation. During this process yeast cells convert sugars to alcohol.


Enfleurage

A traditional method of extracting essential oils from delicate flowers such as rose or jasmine which involves placing successive layers of petals on a glass plate covered with warm fatty oils (lard or wax was once used) This process is very costly and laborious though still used for the production of perfumes.


Escherichia coli O157

The Escherichia coli is a bacterial parasite found in the human intestine. The presence of E. coli in food is proof of contamination with faecal matter. The Escherichia coli 0157 is one of the more dangerous strains of this bacteria and may cause internal infection accompanied by bleeding.


Essential oils

Highly aromatic, volatile and insoluble substances extracted from leaves, flowers, stems and roots of plants by means of steam distillation or by means of some other method.


Essencier

A recipient that allows for the simultaneous collection and separation of essential oils and floral waters produced in an alembic or alquitar.


Epidermis

The outer layer of the skin that together with the dermis and hypodermis protects the body from external harm.


Emenogogue

Pharmacological substance that induces a menstrual flow.


Ebullition

Refers to the boiling point of a liquid when a substance passes from a liquid phase to a gaseous phase. Water evaporates at 100º C at sea level. Alcohol being a more volatile liquid evaporates at 78,35º C. The difference in boiling points allows for the separation of different components in a liquid solvent by distillation.