Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



Calvados

Cider Brandy from the French region of Normandy.


Camomile

One of the oldest medicinal plants used by man, native to Europe and used in aromatherapy, for cosmetics, for making essential oils and floral waters. Camomile essential oil has a characteristic deep blue colour due to the presence of chamazulene, an anti-inflammatory compound.


Carrier oil

A vegetable oil, also known as base oil, used to dilute essential oils for massage treatments orfor any other topical treatment.


Cassis

Famous French liqueur often used to make desserts made from the cassis berry or blackcurrant.


Cedar

This tree is native to the Middle East and the Himalayas and often used in landscaping, for wood, resins and for the extraction of essential oils. The wood from the cedar is highly aromatic but is not much used because of its fragility. Essential oils extracted from the cedar where among the first used. The Egyptians used Cedar essential oils to embalm their dead.


Chauffe

A French term that refers to the distillate from the first distillation process.

Bonne Chauffe: French term that refers to the distillate from the second distillation.


Chord

Fragrance resulting from a combination of various notes.


Cider

A low alcoholic beverage made from fermented apples or apple juice. The famous French brandy, Calvados is made from cider.


Clove

An oriental aromatic plant cultivated all over the world, used in cuisine, for making cosmetics, essential oils, for relieving toothache and for masking bad breath.Its antiseptic qualities are well known. As far back as the 3rd century it was customary for Chinese to chew on a few cloves before addressing the Emperor.


Cognac

A well known eau-de-vie or brandy produced in French region of Charante. There are six delimited areas where cognac may be produced, these are: Grande-Champagne, Petite Champagne, Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons Bois, Bois Ordinaires. Cognac is made from selected white wines aged in oak barrels


Concretes

Concentrated essential oils extracted by means of the enfleurage method - used to obtain delicate fragrances such as jasmine, rose, gardenia, orange blossoms, angelica and other flowers. In the enfleurage method delicate flower petals, collected in the early morning are placed on glass plates and covered with fatty oils. Once these petals are spent they are replaced with fresh ones. The fatty oils that cover the petals absorb the essential oils concretes and are rinsed with alcohol afterwards. Once the alcohol evaporates you are left with concentrated essential oils known as absolutes.


Condensation

Physical phenomenon that occurs when a substance passes from its gaseous phase to its liquid phase once the vapours cool sufficiently.


Condenser

Part of an alembic or alquitar where the vapours are cooled and condensed by the cold water in the condenser or condensing recipient. In the alembic the condenser is separate from the pot but in the alquitar it is incorporated in the unit, sitting on top of the vapour chamber.


Compress

Piece of gauze or cloth (linen or cotton) applied on wounds. In aromatherapy the compress is soaked in a solution with essential oils and applied cold or hot on the affected area.


Condensation unit

Part of an alembic or alquitar where the vapours are cooled and condensed by the cold water in the condenser or condensing recipient. In the alembic the condenser is separate from the pot but in the alquitar it is incorporated in the unit, sitting on top of the vapour chamber.


Copper

Copper has been known and used for centuries. It is an excellent conductor of electricity, purifying agent, is malleable and has anti-pathogenic properties. Copper has been used in the fabrication of electrical conductors (wire, cables), metal alloys such as brass, alembics and for numerous other applications.


Coriander

An aromatic plant native to South East Asia and North Africa with a characteristic aroma and much appreciated in the Mediterranean for its culinary uses. The leaves, roots, flowers and seeds of the coriander may be used to flavour perfumes, liqueurs and for making essential oils with antispasmodic, stimulant or digestive properties.


Cut off points

Term that designates the points of separation of the different parts of the distillate. The three cut off points are: heads, hearts and tails. The heads and tails correspond to the first and last parts of the distillate and should be discarded as they are not fit for human consumption. To determine the precise cut off points of a distillate a thermometer and alcoholmeter are used. Basic distillation laws should be followed.


Cypress

A tree native to Southern Europe but also found across Europe and North America. It is known for its longevity hence the name “cupressus sempervirens”, literally “he who lives forever”. Cypress trees are used for wood, for extracting resin and essential oils. The Greeks highly appreciated its therapeutic properties and used it to stop bleeding.


Cask

A wooden container, usually oak or some other wood, with a bulging midsection. Wines or alcoholic distillates are stored in barrels to allow for aging. The alcoholic beverage acquires certain characteristics from the wood such as the tannins or colouring.


Choco

Small cylindrical cup on which sake is served.


Cachaça

Tradicional Brazil's Moonshine, made from sugar cane, produced in small farms.