- An alcoholic drink popularized in France in the early 20th century associated with Bohemian life and also known as The Green Fairy made from wormwood , aniseed and other aromatic plants such as star anis , fennel , hyssop , veronica , lemon, lemon balm, angelica root , dittany, coriander , juniper and nutmeg. Wormwood is its principal ingredient and lends it its characteristic bitter taste and green colour.
- Concentrated essential oils extracted by means of the enfleurage method - used to obtain delicate fragrances such as jasmine , rose, gardenia, orange blossoms, angelica and other flowers. In the enfleurage method delicate flower petals, collected in the early morning are placed on glass plates and covered with fatty oils. Once these petals are spent they are replaced with fresh ones. The fatty oils that cover the petals absorb the essential oils ( concretes ) and are rinsed with alcohol afterwards. Once the alcohol evaporates you are left with concentrated essential oils known as absolutes.
- Period during which eau-de-vie is stored in barrels to acquire the characteristics of the wood and improve the quality. Most eaux-de-vie are placed in oak barrels to impart colour and a pleasant bouquet. The same distillate may be of varying quality, have a different aroma or colour depending on the length of time it is allowed to age.
- %v/v - is an abbreviation for percentage volume of a substance of the total volume - e.g. 12.5 % v/v ethanol. = 12.5 ml ethanol in approx. 87.5 ml water Alcohol concentration is stated as ethanol as it is the predominant alcohol in wine often seen on wine labels as 12.5 % Alc. or 12.5 ALC/VOL or ALCOHOL 12.5% BY VOLUME (note the predominant alcohol in wine is ethanol).
- Term used to designate the level of alcohol present in an alcoholic beverage. The alcoholic volume is presented in percentage value.
- Distillation apparatus employed for the distillation of eau-de-vies , essential oils and floral waters . It is made up of 3 parts: a) pot b) swan neck lid c) condenser . Depending on the model the system may include different parts such as a preheater ( Charentais Alembic ) or column such as the Rotating Column Alembic or Reflux Column Alembic ). The origin of the word alembic comes from the Arabic al-ambiq which lends weight to the argument that the Arabs invented this distilling apparatus.
- Distilling apparatus suitable for distilling eau-de-vies , essential oils and floral waters . The alquitar still is made up of 2 parts ( pot and condenser ) as opposed to the alembic still which has 3 parts ( pot , swan neck lid and condenser ). The head incorporates a vapour chamber inside and a bowl shaped condenser for holding cold water on top. The distillate vapours collect inside the vapour chamber and condense to liquid form once they come in contact with the cold surface of the condenser . Due to its characteristic shape, the space necessary for distilation is reduced considerably.
- Pharmacological agent used to combat intestinal worms.
- Pharmacological agent used to combat inflammation. These substances may also act as analgesics .
- Pharmacological agent for reducing fever and its associated symptoms.
- Pharmacological agent that stops the proliferation of bacteria on the external regions of the body.
- A French eau-de-vie with an alcoholic volume greater than 40% from 3 distinct regions ( Bas Armagnac , Tenarèze and Haut Armagnac ) and distilled exclusively from selected white grape varieties: Ugni Blanc, Bacco 22 A, Colombard, Jurançon, Plant de Grèce, Folle Blanche et Jaune, Meslier, Clairette, Blanguette and Mauzac. The production of Armagnac reached its prime in the 19th century but suffered a crisis in 1980 because of the phylloxera plague that afflicted the region.
- Distinctive smell or odour perceived by the olfactory system. Wine or perfume fragrance. With regard to wine the primary aroma comes from the grapes, the second from the wine making process and the thirdly from the aging process ( bouquet ).
- Plants with aromatic leaves, flowers, stems or roots that impart flavour and aroma to food or spirituous beverages. Many aromatic plants have therapeutic properties that have been known since antiquity and have been used for making essential oils used in aromatherapy .
- Traditional Portuguese Moonshine, resulting from the mix of the skins and branches of the grapes from last year's wine production.
- Method employed to heat a substance slowly and gently by immersing one recipient in another with hot water and thus distributing the heat uniformly. The name comes from Marie, the French chemist who invented this technique. This method is much used in food preparation, in laboratories and is often employed for distilling essential oils or hydrolats from delicate organics such as flower petals. The distillation of fruits with high sugar content in an alembic using this technique is more advantageous as the organic compounds do not suffer alterations or burn from direct contact with the heat source.
- Glass used to serve the Arak mixed with water and ice.
- This is the fragrance or aroma of a wine that has undergone the aging process. It may also represent the floral notes present in a perfume.
- This is the renowned American corn whiskey . It may also include wheat, rye or malted barley. The production of bourbon is regulated by strict statutory laws according to which it may not have less than 51% corn; it should be distilled to a minimum of 80% alcohol; no additive is permitted with the exception of distilled water and it should be bottled at a minimum of 40% alcoholic volume. The Whiskey produced according to these guidelines is called Straight Bourbon.
- This tree is native to the Middle East and the Himalayas and often used in landscaping, for wood, resins and for the extraction of essential oils . The wood from the cedar is highly aromatic but is not much used because of its fragility. Essential oils extracted from the cedar where among the first used. The Egyptians used Cedar essential oils to embalm their dead.
- A French term that refers to the distillate from the first distillation process. Bonne Chauffe : French term that refers to the distillate from the second distillation.
- Small cylindrical cup on which sake is served.
- Fragrance resulting from a combination of various notes .
- An oriental aromatic plant cultivated all over the world, used in cuisine, for making cosmetics, essential oils , for relieving toothache and for masking bad breath.Its antiseptic qualities are well known. As far back as the 3rd century it was customary for Chinese to chew on a few cloves before addressing the Emperor.
- Concentrated essential oils extracted by means of the enfleurage method - used to obtain delicate fragrances such as jasmine, rose, gardenia, orange blossoms, angelica and other flowers. In the enfleurage method delicate flower petals, collected in the early morning are placed on glass plates and covered with fatty oils. Once these petals are spent they are replaced with fresh ones. The fatty oils that cover the petals absorb the essential oils concretes and are rinsed with alcohol afterwards. Once the alcohol evaporates you are left with concentrated essential oils known as absolutes .
- Physical phenomenon that occurs when a substance passes from its gaseous phase to its liquid phase once the vapours cool sufficiently.
- Copper has been known and used for centuries. It is an excellent conductor of electricity, purifying agent, is malleable and has anti-pathogenic properties. Copper has been used in the fabrication of electrical conductors (wire, cables), metal alloys such as brass, alembics and for numerous other applications.
- An aromatic plant native to South East Asia and North Africa with a characteristic aroma and much appreciated in the Mediterranean for its culinary uses. The leaves, roots, flowers and seeds of the coriander may be used to flavour perfumes, liqueurs and for making essential oils with antispasmodic , stimulant or digestive properties.
- Term that designates the points of separation of the different parts of the distillate. The three cut off points are: heads , hearts and tails . The heads and tails correspond to the first and last parts of the distillate and should be discarded as they are not fit for human consumption. To determine the precise cut off points of a distillate a thermometer and alcoholmeter are used. Basic distillation laws should be followed.
- A tree native to Southern Europe but also found across Europe and North America. It is known for its longevity hence the name cupressus sempervirens, literally he who lives forever. Cypress trees are used for wood, for extracting resin and essential oils . The Greeks highly appreciated its therapeutic properties and used it to stop bleeding.
- Process of obtaining potable water from sea water by the elimination of dissolved salts and may be done by distillation . This process may be used in coastal areas where potable water is not freely available.
- This is the final result from the distillation of a fermented wash in an alembic or alquitar .
- The extraction of components of a substance by heating and collection of resultant vapours by condensation . This process may be used for the extraction of alcohol, essential oils and floral waters , for purifying water, desalination and in the petroleum industry. The four different processes of distillation are: Simple: Describes the basic distillation method for the traditional alembic by heating a liquid or mash in an alembic pot to encourage the evaporation of volatile substances and subsequent condensation . Steam: Employs steam to heat a substance sufficiently so as to release its volatile components. This is the process for the rotating column alembic and may be used for extracting essential oils and floral waters . Fractional: Allows for the separation of a complex solution into its different components in a single distillation run by taking advantage of the difference in their boiling points. When employed for alcohol distillation the resultant distillate will have a higher alcoholic volume than with other methods. The liquid in a fractional column is continuously redistilled in a single run. Continuous: A process of continuous uninterrupted collection of distillate
- A substance that stimulates the kidneys to increase the amount of urine produced.
- Refers to the boiling point of a liquid when a substance passes from a liquid phase to a gaseous phase. Water evaporates at 100º C at sea level. Alcohol being a more volatile liquid evaporates at 78,35º C. The difference in boiling points allows for the separation of different components in a liquid solvent by distillation .
- Pharmacological substance that induces a menstrual flow.
- A traditional method of extracting essential oils from delicate flowers such as rose or jasmine which involves placing successive layers of petals on a glass plate covered with warm fatty oils (lard or wax was once used) This process is very costly and laborious though still used for the production of perfumes.
- Chemical substances resultant from the interaction of acids from organic materials with alcohol (etherification), they impart the characteristic aroma of the fruit to the distillate.
- Is the colourless alcohol soluble in water and other organic compounds present in alcoholic beverages, fuels, perfumes, lotions and antiseptics . Ethanol is the result of enzyme action during fermentation . During this process yeast cells convert sugars to alcohol.
- A toxic substance which results from the conversion of cyanide in the stones of fruits during the fermentation process. The risk of contamination is reduced by the removal of the stones or pits before fermentation .
- Physical phenomenon that occurs when a substance passes from its liquid phase to its gaseous phase when heated.
- Pharmacological substance that acts upon the respiratory system, promoting the release of phlegm or mucous from the respiratory tract.
- Process of conversion of sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) into alcohol ( ethanol ) and carbon dioxide by the action of yeast cells.
- A traditional and simple method for relieving tired feet and legs by hot water immersion. By the addition of essential oils , bath salts and some pebbles the therapeutic benefits may be heightened. This treatment is effective as it stimulates the many nerve endings on the feet associated with the various organs of the body.
- The column allows for a fractional distillation process with a resultant high alcohol concentration equivalent to various distillation processes. The fractionating column is made up of various refining plates placed horizontally that permit successive evaporation and condensation of vapours. These plates may be substituted by packing in a ( reflux column ) to obtain a high alcoholic volume
- Refers to the first part of alcoholic distillate to flow from the condenser that is separated and discarded because of undesirable components that are present and that may spoil the distillate such as methanol .
- This is the part of distillate fit for human consumption, the part with the ethanol . The hearts are extracted after the heads and before the tails . To calculate the precise cutting off points an alcoholmeter is used.
- This is a region of the brain below the thalamus responsible for processing emotions, for the central nervous system, endocrine system, body temperature control, appetite and water balance in our organism.
- Typical Serbian Moonshine, brandy made from apples.
- Yellow colouration of the skin and the white of the eyes from excess bile pigment in the blood deposited in these tissues.
- A Portuguese unit of measure used by the older generations. 1 Jiga is equal to 10 litres.
- Typical Philippian Moonshine, made from coconut flower and with a high alcoholic grade (between 80% and 90%).
- Method of extracting active ingredients from a substance. This method is used for making liqueurs and extracting essential oils . When making liqueurs, fruit or aromatic plants are placed in alcohol in order to dissolve its active components. Essential oils are extracted using solvents.
- Barley or some other grains that have undergone the malting process.
- Mix of solid and liquid sake parts.
- Material, welches durch das Zerdücken von Trauben oder anderen Früchten entsteht. Davon produziert man verschiedene alkoholische Getränke.
- During this whiskey process the malted grains are grinded so a greater quantity of starch may be released. This malt is then mixed with hot boiling water in a vessel called the mash tun and after a couple of hours the starch is transformed into maltose.
- Result of the fermentation of the liquid harvested from the grapes/dates in Arak production.
- The metallic belt structure consists of a number of belts which are permanently welded along the bottom and sides of a large alembic A long metal bar is then welded to the top side of this structure to act as an axle. The copper pot is then assembled on a permanent brick structure to hold the axle and allow it to pivot. This structure facilitates the discharge of residues.
- Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol and is a highly flammable and toxic alcohol. It is present in alcoholic distillates and is removed as part of the heads where it is concentrated.
- These are Greek gastronomic delights similar to the Spanish tapas and are normally served accompanied by ouzo .
- A thick sticky syrup produced as a by product of the sugar refining process.
- Term used to describe the various scents in a perfume released gradually as they evaporate when in contact with the warm surface of the skin.
- The decomposition of essential oils when exposed to oxygen.
- Decaying plant matter found in marshes and swamps and used as a combustible fuel.
- Refers to the measure of acidity or alkalinity in a solution - the lower the pH the higher the acidity. A pH of 7 is considered neutral.
- This is like a holding tank or reservoir for the Charentais Alembic . This recipient with its peculiar onion shape is filled with wine and is preheated by the swan neck pipe which passes through it. The heat is generated by the vapours from the pot or boiler. The pre-heated wine is subsequently passed to the pot for distillation . This unit is considered a time saver and is the traditional still for making Cognac brandies.
- Tradicional Estonian Moonshine, made from potatoes.
- Traditional Turkish Moonshine made from aniseed.
- An alembic accessory placed between the vapour chamber of the alembic and the swan neck pipe. Its main purpose is to save time as the distiller has no need to proceed with a second distillation process to obtain higher levels of alcohol in the final distillate. The refining lentil carries out an initial condensation of vapors as heavier (less volatile ) substances drop back into the still pot thus only allowing lighter vapours (higher alcohol concentration ) to pass through to the water cooled coils in the condenser .
- These plates or trays are placed horizontally in the fractionating column and allow for the successive condensation and re- evaporation of the distillate resulting in higher alcoholic concentrations equivalent to multiple distillations.
- This horizontal column is placed on top of the alembic unit and functions much like the fractioning column . The refining plates in this case are replaced by packing. As the vapours rise up the column the heavier or less volatile components condense on the packing while the more volatile vapours continue to rise up and are drawn off. This results in a distillate with a higher alcoholic concentration .
- Typical Serbian Moonshine, brandy made from plums.
- Term that expresses the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance.
- Result of the distillation of Mestar.
- This plant is native to China and Japan and is similar to aniseed although more potent .It has anti-inflammatory , antiseptic , calming, digestive, and diuretic properties. It is used in cuisine, for making essential oils and to flavour liqueurs. The main component of Tamiflu, the well known medication used against bird flu (H5N1), is star anis.
- Pharmacological agent that acts upon the central nervous system for increasing physical activity, increasing levels of concentration, mood and cognitive abilities.
- Carbohydrate found naturally in fruits and vegetables. Sugar may be made from sugar cane, sugar beet or corn. When added to a must or wash it accelerates the fermentation process. Invert sugar: Is obtained by heating sugar syrup and acidic substances to break down sucrose into its basic components - glucose and fructose. Raw sugar: This type of sugar is not fully processed. It may include demerara and muscovado which do not undergo the refining process.
- A strong mineral acid that is soluble in water and accumulates in alembics when not used for some time. High concentrations of this acid may be corrosive.
- This is the final portion of distillate to exit the condenser and together with heads should be discarded as these contain toxic substances. The tails are collected once the distillate vapours descend to 82 º C. The tails of grape distillates can be distinguished from hearts which are clear by its milky opaque colour. Precise cut off points are measured using an alcoholmeter .
- Organic substances present in wine responsible for characteristics such as colouration and aroma . Tannins are found in grape skins, seeds and stems (soft or sweet tannins). Oak barrels, used in the aging process of wines also contribute to the tannins present in wines (hard tannins).
- Part of the diencephalon located at the base of the brain responsible for processing and classifying sensorial information.
- Tradicional Indian Moonshine, made from the fermentation of sugar cane pulp.
- An alembic accessory which may be separated or incorporated in the alembic which allows for an exact temperature reading of the distillate vapours of alcoholic spirits, essential oils or floral waters . Precise cut off points of the distillate can be calculated with the use of a thermometer and alcoholmeter .
- The principle ingredient in Artemisia Absinthum or wormwood-used in making essential oils and absinthe . It is considered as a neurological stimulant and may cause sensory or psychic alterations if abused.
- Name given to the ones who produce sake. Highly respected job in Japan that is passed as a tradition from father to son.
- A substance or agent that that reinvigorates a debilitated organism.
- Decaying plant matter found in marshes and swamps and used as a combustible fuel.
- This is a substance that dilates the blood vessels and thus decreases blood pressure.
- Typical Serbian Moonshine, brandy made from pears.
- = Volatile Component .
- Descriptive of certain substances, liquids or solids that evaporate easily. During distillation the more volatile components are the first to exit due to their low boiling points.
- A fermentable solution for alcohol production that may be of fruit, cereals or sugar.
- Typical Moonshine from the Appalachia area, USA, made from corn and sugar.
- A bitter extract is obtained from wormwood for flavouring liqueurs and wines.It was much used in traditional medicine as a tonic and due to its antipyretic and anthelmintic properties. It was also used in the beginning of the 20th century for making absinthe. Thujone is the active ingredient of this plant.
- This micro-organism is absolutely vital in the fermentation .